These walls, as mentioned earlier, are produced in places far from construction. The use of structures is different and can be provided in the form of building materials, columns, concrete slabs, etc. Reinforcements such as concrete are used to produce prefabricated walls.
What is the meaning of panel?
The distance between two adjacent hinges / supports is called the panel.
Advantages of prefabricated concrete house:
– Production of prefabricated concrete house can be done easily.
– If this method is used in construction, the costs related to workers or the purchase of construction materials will be reduced.
– Prefabricated concrete house panels are decorative applications and also good insulation against heat and sound.
– Prefabricated concrete is easily replaceable.
– The structure of prefabricated concrete consists of a framework and framing.
– With the development of this technology, the completion of construction has become easier.
– Factors that lead to the production of pollution will not affect the prefabricated concrete house.
– The maintenance option does not apply to these walls.
– If the construction industry does not benefit from the use of prefabricated concrete houses, energy and time will be saved.
The history of prefabricated houses It is said that it was originally the first wooden prefabricated house and was called a portable house because the first wooden house was brought to Australia by British immigrants from England. Between 1902 and 1910, several companies in the United States began selling prefabricated building parts because prefabricated homes required less labor than conventional homes, resulting in a more affordable price for the general public.
After the end of World War II between 1945 and 1949, more than 156,000 prefabricated houses were built in Britain, temporarily replacing the houses destroyed during the war. Although these houses were originally intended for temporary accommodation, many residents remained in them for years and even decades after the end of the war. Some of these homes still stand in the 21st century. By 1948, more than 5,000 prefabricated homes had been built in Germany for members of the US military. Factories producing prefabricated systems in Iran were set up for the first time in 2006. What is a prefabricated building? Prefabricated building refers to a building whose materials are built and prepared in the primary environment (factory) and assembled in the secondary environment (home location). Prefabricated buildings, like reinforced concrete buildings, require a construction permit, so you must obtain a permit to carry out the project by contacting the district municipality or the Department of Housing and Urban Development.
The prefabricated building consists of prefabricated materials that after preparation of this building should be placed on a level concrete surface that is 30 cm larger on each side of the outer wall and has a height of 25 to 30 cm. This type of building does not require large foundations such as reinforced concrete buildings. The canopy is a very common subset of prefabricated buildings that plays a significant role in urban housing and is used to transport prefabricated buildings, including canopies, trucks, trailers, ships, trains or cargo planes.
Advantages of prefabricated buildings Among the advantages of prefabricated buildings can be mentioned the following: It is possible to produce prefabricated buildings, suitable for any type of use. Due to the formation of prefabricated houses from standard modular units, they are very easy and fast to set up. Due to their flexible structure, they are resistant to earthquakes and landslides. It is possible to build prefabricated buildings to suit the conditions of all climates. In the field of thermal and acoustic insulation compared to other buildings has superior features. It is established in a short period of time without causing pollution in the environment. It can be designed and executed in accordance with the modern and historical context. It is fire resistant. Due to the disassembly feature on request, it is possible to disassemble and reinstall it in another location. Types of prefabricated buildings Prefabricated buildings are generally divided into several categories: Concrete prefabricated buildings Prefabricated concrete buildings are made of prefabricated concrete which are prepared during the following steps: Preparation of formwork (Formwork plates must be rigid So that they do not deform and distort against the lateral pressure of concrete)
How to build a prefabricated concrete building First, the desired plan is drawn on the land where they intend to build the building. Then, on the map lines drawn on the ground, special rails designed and produced to fit the concrete slabs are placed, which are sunk into the ground with firm clamps and cling to it. In the continuation of the work, the rectangular pieces of concrete that are made in the factory with fixed lengths and widths (the length of these pieces will generally be the same as the height of the roof of the house) are placed one by one vertically in these rails and fastened together. It should be noted that some of these parts, which have already been identified in the building plan, have cuts that have been created for use as doors and windows of the house.
After the prefabricated lightweight concrete house parts are completely put together, special adhesives are applied from inside and outside the house to the parts where these concrete pieces are fastened together to prevent heat and cold from entering and leaving. , Insects, rain and from
Avoid such cases. At this stage, as the walls of the house stand, the windows and doors of the building are put in place and installed. Then it is the turn of the roof of the house that large and triangular metal pieces are placed in several specific places on the roof of the house and are fastened using the extensions installed in their special places. Sturdy sheets, usually made of lightweight materials such as aluminum or sturdy and impermeable foams, are then mounted sloping on these parts. After this stage, the next work that will be done will be completely tasteful, for example, the employer can decorate his roof with pottery or use solar panels to supply electricity to the house. He can also paint the walls of the house or use wallpaper for its interior beauty, depending on his taste. Advantages of Prefabricated Concrete Buildings Some of the advantages of prefabricated concrete buildings are: They have higher quality control when shaking, processing, loading and testing. They have a higher curing speed, so that the speed of autoclave machines reaches even less than 24 hours during curing. There are no restrictions in terms of weather conditions and time to advance the operation. After production, concrete structures remain in the factory for a while, which causes most of the concrete drop in the factory. The prestressing operation reduces the height of the beam. Types of Fittings in Prefabricated Concrete Buildings Fittings are a very important part of prefabricated concrete houses, which include:
Column connection to the foundation (screwing of the steel plate of the prefabricated column floor to the foundation of the prefabricated concrete building and covering with cement and concrete) Connection of the column to the column (welding of steel sheet to the place of collision of 2 columns) Pre-installed on these 2 components together) Ceiling connection to the beam (with the help of rebars embedded in these components) Ceiling connection to the roof of lightweight building LSF (LSF) Prefabricated steel structure LSF “LSF” Structural It is prefabricated and light that the plan and design is given to the builder and is made based on the structural details in the plan of the desired structure. Sheets, profiles, bolts and nuts are prepared with standard and technical documents and cutting operations and then Drilling is done according to the plan and with high precision, and pleating is removed and welding is done with high precision.
After cleaning and pouring the boiling mud, the painting operation takes place. The factory quality control supervisor oversees and is then taken to the workplace.
These structures, which are made of galvanized sheet with variable profile widths (usually 89 to 308 mm), are used as a replacement for existing metal or concrete structures or any other type of heel used in construction. Another type of prefabricated metal buildings uses galvanized bent profiles that are resistant to decay and rust, and the advantage of this system is its lightness and high installation speed, and the connections are riveted and sometimes screwed.
After the parts are arrived at the site, the structure is mounted and installed on the pre-executed foundation. All connections are made by bolts and bolts, bolts and other connections, and there is no need for on-site welding. Structural system of lightweight building LSF (LSF) Prefabricated steel Prefabricated buildings including gravity bearing structural system, can be combined with other structural systems, such as structural reinforced concrete walls, and in short buildings as a structural system O mixed is used.
Prefabricated buildings in modern factories are produced with a modular system (bolt and nut system without welding). The screw system has a high resistance and safety compared to welding, and human error in them reaches about zero. The modular system consists of light steel components and in these structures heat and sound insulation is used in the walls and ceiling.
The sections of light steel components have various dimensions and thickness variations between 2.5 to 0.6 mm. The connection of LSF (light steel parts) to the foundation is formed by a horizontal coil with section C. The vertical components act as a column bearing member in gravitational loads. Some of these members in the lateral bracing opening of the structure, in addition to gravitational load, also bear the forces caused by the lateral load, which are introduced in the system under the name of Stud. The roof of these structures consists of metal beams. Beams and joists mainly have sections with C and Z shapes.
Roof covering with concrete slab can be designed as a composite metal roof if the necessary integration between concrete and steel beam profiles. Structural performance of LSF (LSF) lightweight prefabricated steel roof system The structure of these buildings consists of metal beams that the spacing of the beams according to the load-bearing capacity of the member and the dimensions of the roof covering parts, which can be thick cement boards or Reinforced concrete slab is determined. In existing steel structures, the bracing opening consists of only two columns. While in light steel (LSF) frames there are more than two masts in one bracing opening, in this system the pressure members are distributed along the opening and the diagonal members are attached to them, thus the pressure members in addition to bearing Gravity also participates in withstanding the lateral forces of wind and earthquake. The vertical components of this system act as compressive load members under gravity loads. If the compression members are located in the braced openings, in addition to gravity loads, they also withstand the forces caused by wind and earthquake lateral loads, and since at height Buildings are not continuous, their connection to the floor, roof or foundation is important, which is done by steel bolts with tensile function.
These upright members in this structural system are called masters. The connection of the compression members (masters) to the transverse coil (truck) is done by an intermediate member with a stud section (runner). In most cases, two types of roofs are used in light steel frames (LSF): in the first type, a type of light plate is used from materials such as thick cement plates, which are mostly used in single-storey buildings with sloping roofs or roofs in some areas. Snow and wind loads are not used. By placing the plates on the beams and attaching the upper wing of the beams to the plate with an automatic screw. The second type is reinforced concrete slab, which can be prefabricated or in-situ concreting. In situ, the reinforced concrete slab is placed on the beams through a corrugated sheet that acts as a formwork and no joints. There is no reinforced concrete slab and metal beam and in fact the slab is placed on a simple support, so the slab between the two beams has a simple support and the behavior of the beams will be as an independent bending member. Features of lightweight prefabricated steel LSF (LSF) structure Among the features of these lightweight steel structures are the following: Light weight, possibility of producing sections in a short time, fast transport and easy installation
Advantages of lightweight LSF (LSF) prefabricated steel structures Lightweight prefabricated steel LSF structures have the following advantages: High resistance of parts to their weight Ability to be prefabricated and mass production of parts Resistance to rust Possibility of recycling and reuse The materials used are light fire resistance, simplicity, quality, no delay due to weather conditions in the construction and installation of economic transportation structures, quick and easy installation, high accuracy in the implementation of details, no need for molding, no drop and creep at low ambient temperatures. Consumption of steel The use of thin sheets (reduces the dead load of the building and the weight of the structural skeleton by about 30 to 40%) Possibility of adding floors to the existing building Ease of assembly and separation Possibility of assembly and separation (Given that the connections to The face is screwed and riveted) High execution speed Acceptable installation speed in the workshop Main applications of lightweight LSF (LSF) prefabricated steel structure due to the variety of cold rolled steel parts and the construction method used in lightweight frames Steel (.LSF) These types of buildings have wide applications in the construction industry They have different uses.
Applications include the following: Construction of low-rise offices and small commercial buildings Sports and educational buildings Construction of half-floors inside the building Increase the number of floors on the roof of existing buildings (additional floors) Mass labor (Simple implementation of light steel frames (.LSF) can be taught to workers in a few hours, which reduces project costs) Execution, modification, maintenance to save time optimizing the consumption of materials Lightweight steel frames (LSF) are about 40% less common than conventional systems. Prefabricated PVC buildings are actually portable houses made by assembling sheets of polyvinyl chloride or PVC. PVC has high resistance to erosion and its price is cheap and can be easily assembled in construction workshops as vinyl siding (prefabricated exterior of the building), cutting windows, pipes and ducts, dark windows, floor and ceiling.
The power cord and shell of the power cord are also used. Prefabricated wooden house Prefabricated wooden building is much lighter than its concrete and metal counterparts due to its lightweight raw material. One of the most common foundations used in the construction of wooden prefabricated buildings is the wide foundation or slab (which is the most common foundation model due to its simplicity and cheapness compared to other methods, and after making a concrete bed, the prefabricated building). Wood is assembled on it) After making a suitable substrate for building a prefabricated wooden building, it is time to install a wooden or metal frame. At this stage of the construction of the prefabricated wooden building, first the external walls and some of the internal walls that bear the load are connected directly to the concrete foundation of the structure (with restraining screws).
Advantages of prefabricated wooden house High tensile strength (such as earthquake) Less flammability than metal and concrete (slow burning and charring instead of sudden ignition) Thermal insulation even in the absence of conventional insulation Resistance to natural phenomena Such as rusting due to inherent aesthetic moisture with low cost of low manufacturing time, low durability and indescribable comfort to the occupants of the prefabricated building. It is surrounded by two layers of metal (usually alloying sheet or zinc and aluminum). Sandwich panel as the main material of the wall e
Prefabricated Sandwich Panel Building Sandwich panel is usually referred to as an insulating layer of fiberglass, polystyrene or polyurethane, which is surrounded by two layers of metal (usually alloy sheet or zinc and aluminum).
Features of prefabricated sandwich panel building Among the features of prefabricated sandwich panel building, the following can be mentioned:
Sound and temperature resistant insulation Reasonable price Light weight Special design Various dimensions Waterproof stainless steel (resistance to snow, rain and washing) Quick and easy installation High resistance to natural challenges and chemicals Sandwich panels General sandwich panels are divided into three categories: polyurethane sandwich panels (sound insulation, temperature, humidity with light weight) polystyrene sandwich panels (which use ionolite as insulation and is lighter and cheaper than the previous type) ) Rock wool sandwich panel (which due to its fire-retardant properties, is suitable for places where there is a higher risk of fire)
Characteristics of sandwich panel walls or 3D panels Low weight (reduces the weight of 25% and 15% of materials used in the building) High strength High tensile strength against heavy load Reduction of consumption of rebar, iron and concrete in building Insulation against heat insulation Cost-effective energy saving fire insulation (with fireproof coatings of 4.5 mm fiber cement that lasts 4 hours at 1000 ° C) Moisture resistant Reduction of ambient space (at least 10% in savings) Space) Sound insulation Very high installation speed (so that a three-person team can install 20 to 40 square meters per day) Reduces the cost of construction overhead Reduces the weight of earthquake resistant building Easy repair of damaged wall Recyclable 60% Lighter Conventional materials resistant to corrosion, skewness and cracking of the dust-free installation process. Executive restrictions Prefabricated walls for the interior walls of the building should be used panels with a thickness of 90 mm and in exterior walls or walls that require sound insulation The top has a thickness of 120 mm or feet Nell is suitable for two layers.
Maximum wall height without the need for reinforcement and auxiliary structure in walls with a thickness of 60 mm 3 meters, in walls with a thickness of 90 mm 4 meters, walls with a thickness of 120 mm 5 meters and a minimum installation length of 8 meters, so if you need to increase The higher the height and the longer the length should be executed in a suitable structure. Other types of prefabricated buildings Prefabricated pavilions and tent structures or fabric structures or in other words membrane structures are a kind of modern and new structures that are part of prefabricated structures. Possibility of prefabricated building on the top floor of a reinforced concrete building One of the advantages of prefabricated buildings is that it is possible to build it on one floor of reinforced concrete buildings. The lower building must have a smooth and durable roof.
There should be no chimney at the installation site because removing the chimney from the roof of the prefabricated building is not suitable in terms of waterproofing and increasing the risk of fire. Various methods of arranging prefabricated structures Each prefabricated building first makes its parts in the factory and then is transferred to the permanent location of the building in the form of portable parts and installed. Including the types of arrangement of parts at the site ( Permanent location of the structure) The following can be mentioned:
Modular Homes Modular Homes are a type of prefabricated house whose parts are made in the factory and installed on site. In this method, each room is made in the form of a cube in the factory and these ready-made cans are placed next to each other to form the main building. Perhaps the only limitation of this model is its transportation problems; Due to the fact that these parts are fully transported and in standard dimensions, there are not many vehicles that can move to this complex seamlessly, so the mentioned rooms according to the capacity of existing trucks and the potential of the place. Installations are designed.
Homes are a type of prefabricated house that is built as an integrated metal structure in the factory and installed on site. This type of building has a temporary nature due to the presence of wheels under the structure and among its peers, they are the most unsuitable option for permanent residence, so they are used for temporary accommodation of workers in road and building projects, resting place for employees in the project. Used outside the city, guard centers and non-permanent offices. Mobile Homes are a type of prefabricated room that sits on wheels and is portable.
Panel houses In panel buildings, after proper flooring, the walls enter the site in a pre-prepared form in standard dimensions. At this stage, each wall is fixed in place with the help of a crane, and the engineers and construction workers set up and install each one. In this puzzle operation, the installation of each wall depends on the installation of the neighboring wall, after finishing the work, doors, windows, sinks and washbasins, electrical wiring and other necessities of a building are installed. Prefabricated panel building is very popular and cost-effective due to ease of transportation, installation and general costs, but it should not be overlooked that this building is not suitable for 24-hour and permanent use and is suitable for office and commercial uses. Is wet. Types of construction processes of prefabricated buildings Two methods are usually used to implement prefabricated structures, but depending on the type of construction process of contractors, this may be different: The first method after the construction of the platform to a height of 60 cm The following steps are performed: Execution LSF structure Execution of heat and cold insulation with 80 wool rock wool Execution of OPS board on both sides of the wall for sound insulation Execution of foil foam on the outside of the wall for insulation (banana insects) and moisture insulation Execution of knauf (leaf plaster) or coating PVC wall for the inside view of the walls Execution of the facade (fiber cement board) Waterproof cement pads for the exterior of the building Execution of flooring (ceramic – laminate – parquet – wood – epoxy, etc.) Sloping roof covering (fiberglass – bird net – Colored sheet) Implementation of false ceiling Implementation of electrical installations Anti-theft door Double-glazed windows UPVC
Second method: Execution of a steel chassis Execution of LSF structure Execution of heat and cold insulation with 30 wool rock wool Execution of OPS board on one side of the wall for sound insulation Execution of knauf (leaf plaster) or PVC wall covering for interior walls Execution of facade (Fiber cement board) Waterproof cement pads for the exterior of the building Execution of flooring (ceramic – laminate – parquet – wood – epoxy, etc.) Sloping roof covering (fiberglass, bird net, colored sheet) Execution of false ceiling Execution of water electrical installations Door Anti-theft double-glazed windows UPVC Lifespan of prefabricated buildings Prefabricated buildings are in the category of durable buildings and can be used with an average of 50 years with certainty.
Factors such as strong winds, snow, rain, humidity and conditions of use, affect the life of the building and should be taken in accordance with the standard throughout the life of the structure for better maintenance. Factors affecting the price of construction of prefabricated houses In prefabricated houses, factors such as the quality and thickness of the steel used, wall thickness and quality of materials used in the panel, roof insulation, series of windows used affect the price.
In addition, the coatings required on the façade to create stronger thermal insulation and the alternative materials used on the roof also affect the cost of the building. Other influential factors include the following: Overview of the prefabricated house Dimensions of the prefabricated house Area of the prefabricated house Facilities of the prefabricated house Raw materials for building a prefabricated house Tips that you must pay attention to when buying a prefabricated house When buying a prefabricated house, pay attention to the following points:
The reliability of the company is very important. How the company is run, the support of the goods sold, the structure and the characteristics of the company’s personnel are of great importance. Providing ongoing support services is important. The quality of materials and the use of materials that have a quality certificate is very important. Examine the contract carefully. After sales services and in the production and assembly stages, make sure you have a specialized workforce. After finishing your home, in addition to the services provided, it is very important for the company to be responsive and provide the required solutions quickly when dealing with a specific problem. What is the reason for using prefabricated materials? Due to the existence of disasters and natural disasters and economic necessities, the housing construction industry has moved towards the use of prefabricated materials.
Which materials are considered as prefabricated structures? Lightweight steel structure including cold rolled steel sections Gypsum blades Plastic material Wood Lightweight but strong alloys Master prefabricated walls or 3D movable roof panel (used in places such as sports stadiums, home pools, courtyards, patios) Walls Prefabricated concrete ducts Prefabricated concrete ducts Water conduction ducts Gypsum boards as a covering of the inner surface of the sound insulation layer Exterior walls of buildings EPS Metal prefabricated walls Stainless steel wall boards of two different panels (cement board, ionolite, cement board) Or (sheet metal, ionolite, sheet metal) which are strong thermal insulators galvanized sheet OSB isogum shingle window and door double glazed balconies UPVC in interior doors HPL wall sandwich panel or 3D roof panel sandwich panel semi-prefabricated concrete roof panel A pair of T-shaped beams are formed and prefabricated in the factory and transported to the project site) and…
What places are prefabricated materials used to build? Prefabricated materials can be used to build various prefabricated places, which are as follows: Administrative offices and management
Villas Shopping Facilities Sports Facilities School Sanitary Warehouse Prayer Halls Caretaker and Guardian Places Dormitory Places Cultural Places Residential Rooms Power Room and Motor Home Warehouse Exhibition Locations Emergency Camps Laboratory Buildings Advantages of Prefabricated Structures Lighter Weight Compared to Traditional Building Materials As a result of reducing the overall weight of the structure, it is possible to produce sections in a short time, fast transportation, easy construction, installation and installation with minimal material waste (standard production time of a building in normal conditions is one week. Depending on weather conditions, assembly groups in Single-storey houses take up 20 to 25 square meters per day and two-storey houses take up 15 to 20 square meters per day. Finishes the building.With a good plan, it is possible to live in a house in a short period of time, such as a month) Energy saving, more affordable price than conventional buildings, high construction speed, removable, heat and sound insulation, more resistant From the building Normal earthquake resistance (sometimes stability up to 9 Richter) Ability to disassemble more decay resistance Exploitation of the final product also earlier than scheduled Minimum capital sleep and operation of the investment made in the shortest possible time Less pressure on the building foundation Strong structure of roofs and walls Low maintenance cost compared to other buildings Possibility of easy changes in the structure and interior plan without throwing materials Ability to use materials many times to increase the interior space of the building due to the thinner walls
No garbage production Ability to wash inside and outside the building with detergents and maintain the new appearance of the building after years of adapting to the weather conditions Mechanization of construction less disadvantages and seams less human losses less finesse more cost-effective and lower construction costs Easy to transport to difficult places such as desert or high mountain Dead load of the building Less to reduce the size of the foundation and structure and thus reduce the cost of foundation requires less material Reduced energy consumption due to insulation against heat and cold Reusability in another place No waste on materials. Less disturbance for neighbors during construction Possibility of installation in any weather conditions No impediment of banana insects Adequate supervision during construction Wind resistance (approx. Wind speed 80 km / h) Structures of prefabricated buildings in accordance with environmental conditions and Climate of any place (in prefabricated buildings, it is possible to make changes in the building without damaging the structural structure. For possible changes, get information from the after-sales service unit of Karmad company)
Possibility to build prefabricated buildings in desired dimensions and size (especially ready-made houses